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International consortia tackle the global challenge to increase wheat yields at the APPF

Field of ripe wheat

Two international consortia of scientists from the United States, Great Britain, Mexico and Australia are currently carrying out research projects of global importance at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility’s (APPF) Adelaide node for the International Wheat Yield Partnership (IWYP).

The first research project, Improving Yield by Optimising Energy Use Efficiency, is phenotyping an Excalibur x Kukri RIL population to determine genetics controlling energy use efficiency (EUE) in wheat. The aim is to identify genetic loci and markers to enable breeding of high-yielding germplasm with:

  • low rates of leaf respiratory CO2 released per unit growth,
  • optimised levels of sugars, organic and amino acids for growth, and
  • increased biomass at anthesis.

More than 85-90% of the energy captured by plants is used in high-cost cellular processes, such as transport of nutrients and respiration, meaning about only 10-15% is allocated to yield. Thus, any small gain in energy redistribution and use for a costly process can have a marked positive impact on biomass accumulation and yield.

Improvements in EUE can be achieved at the cell, tissue and whole-plant level, with respiration being a prime target.

“Our initial screening of 138 Australian commercial cultivars revealed a two-fold variation in rates of leaf respiration, three-fold variation in the ratio of respiration to growth rate during early development, and significant heritability of 35%. This demonstrates there is untapped genetic variation in EUE amenable to fine-tuning and optimisation of biomass accumulation in the lead-up to anthesis, with concomitant positive knock-on effects on yield”, said Australian National University’s Barry Pogson, Project Lead and Director of the ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology (AUS).

The project has partners at University of Western Australia (AUS), CIMMYT (MEX) and  the University of Adelaide (AUS).

The second research project, AVP1, PSTOL1 and NAS – Three High-Value Genes for Higher Wheat Yield, aims to enhance wheat yield by exploiting and building synergy of three high value genes (AVP1, PSTOL1 and NAS) and enabling molecular breeding by:

  • developing two-gene and three-gene pyramiding combinations of AVP1, PSTOL1 and NAS using available transgenic wheat lines and quantifying the additive effects on yield in multi-location field and greenhouse trials (as a proof of concept),
  • identifying wheat orthologs and allelic variants of TaAVP1, TaPSTOL1 and TaNAS, and designing molecular markers to the best alleles for marker-assisted breeding,
  • providing basic understanding of the physiological and molecular mechanisms behind improved yield and selecting wheat lines with the best allelic combination and field performance, and
  • assessing the necessity for using genome editing technologies to optimise gene function and enhance positive effect on wheat yield by modifying expression of the wheat alleles.

The genes Vacuolar Proton Pyrophosphatase 1 (AVP1), Phosphorus Starvation Tolerance 1 (PSTOL1) and Nicotianamine Synthase (NAS) have been shown to improve plant biomass production and grain yield. Over-expression of these genes results in improved biomass production and grain yield in a range of plant species, including cereals (rice, barley, wheat), in optimal growing conditions. The enhanced yield of the plants is believed to be due to improved sugar transport from source to sinks (AVP1), enhanced root growth and nutrient uptake (AVP1, PSTOL1) and increase in shoot biomass and tiller number (AVP1, PSTOL1, NAS2).

“Identifying and pyramiding the wheat orthologues of these high-value genes provides a real opportunity to produce wheat with significantly improved field performance and higher grain yield,” said Project Lead, Stuart Roy, from the University of Adelaide (AUS).

The project has partners at University of Melbourne (AUS), Arizona State University (USA), Cornell University (USA), University of California, Riverside (USA) and Rothamsted Research (GBR).

These extensive projects will continue throughout 2017 and into 2018.

 

Why is this research so important?

Wheat is the most widely grown of any crop globally, providing 20% of daily calories and protein. By 2050 wheat demand is expected to increase by 60%. To meet this demand, annual potential wheat yield increases must effectively double – an exceptional challenge.

In November 2012, funding agencies and organisations from the G20 countries agreed to work together and formed the global Wheat Initiative to develop a strategic approach to supporting research that would lead to dramatically increasing the genetic yield potential of wheat.

An essential pillar of this strategy is the International Wheat Yield Partnership (IWYP), a novel collaborative approach, enabling the best scientific teams from across the globe to work together in an integrated program to address the challenge of raising the genetic yield potential of wheat by up to 50% in the next two decades all over the world. IWYP builds on the initial research concepts of the Wheat Yield Consortium established by CIMMYT.

To deliver increased wheat yield, a combination of fundamental bioscience and applied research will be needed. IWYP will deliver this through a focused program of research to develop new knowledge, models and wheat lines suited to multiple environments ensuring global gains in wheat yields are achieved.

IWYP will target six key research scope areas:

  • uncovering genetic variation that creates the differences in carbon fixation and partitioning between wheat lines,
  • harnessing genes from wheat and other species through genetic modification to boost carbon capture and fixation to increase biomass production,
  • optimising wheat development and growth to improve grain yields and harvest index,
  • developing elite wheat lines for use in other breeding programs,
  • building on discoveries in wheat relatives and other species, and
  • fostering breakthrough technology development that can transform wheat breeding.

The “IWYP Science Program” provides a unique plan to generate new discoveries and provides for their rapid incorporation into wheat crops grown throughout the world. IWYP’s overarching aims are to stimulate new research, amplify the output from existing programs and make scientific discoveries available to farmers in developing and developed nations.

 

The Australian Plant Phenomics Facility

The APPF provides state-of-the-art phenotyping tools and expertise to help academic and commercial plant scientists from Australia and around the world understand and relate the performance of plants to their genetic make-up. Research facilitated at the APPF is leading to the development of new and improved crops, more sustainable agricultural practices, improved maintenance and regeneration of biodiversity in the face of declining arable land area and the challenges of climate change. Our services.

Do you need access to plant phenotyping capabilities? The PIEPS scheme can help!

Do you have an exceptional plant science research project destined to deliver high impact outcomes for agriculture? The Phenomics Infrastructure for Excellence in Plant Science (PIEPS) scheme was announced in May and is open to all publicly funded researchers. Emphasis is placed on novel collaborations that bring together scientists preferably from different disciplines (e.g. plant physiology, computer science, engineering, biometry, quantitative genetics, molecular biology, chemistry, physics) and from different organisations, within Australia or internationally, to focus on problems in plant science.

The PIEPS scheme involves access to phenotyping capabilities at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility (APPF) at a reduced cost to facilitate exceptional research projects. Researchers will work in partnership with the APPF to determine experimental design and optimal use of the equipment. Our team includes experts in agriculture, plant physiology, biotechnology, genetics, horticulture, image and data analysis, mechatronic engineering, computer science, software engineering, mathematics and statistics.

Applications are assessed in consultation with the APPF’s independent Scientific Advisory Board. Selection is based on merit.

Don’t miss this an outstanding opportunity to gain access to invaluable expertise and cutting edge technology to accelerate your research project and make a real impact in plant science discovery.

Applications close:  30 September 2017

For more information and to applyAPPF Phenomics Infrastructure for Excellence in Plant Science (PIEPS).

To find out how the APPF can support your research, contact us.

Learn more about projects at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility and keep in touch.

 

 

Highest honour awarded to Dr Graham Farquhar

Graham Farquhar ANU

Dr Graham Farquhar          (photo: Stuart Hay, ANU)

Congratulations to Australian National University (ANU) scientist, Dr Graham Farquhar, who has become the first Australian to receive the prestigious Nobel-equivalent Kyoto Prize.

The prize is the highest accolade available to scientists in his field and recognises his outstanding body of work improving water-efficient crops and analysing climate change.

ANU vice-chancellor Brian Schmidt, himself a Nobel laureate, said Dr Farquhar’s work was of benefit to the entire world.

A regular user of the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility’s ANU node, Graham’s work has improved world food security by developing strains of wheat that can grow with less water, and has helped to solve mysteries about why clouds and wind patterns were not changing as climate change models suggested they should.

The Kyoto Prize was established in 1985 and recognises achievements in three fields: basic sciences, arts and philosophy, and advanced technology.

The prize is the latest in a string of accolades for Graham, including the Prime Minister’s Prize for Science in 2015 and Britain’s prestigious Rank Prize, which he shared in 2014 with CSIRO colleague Dr Richard Richards.

More: ABC News

Taking five with Prof. Justin Borevitz

The three national nodes of the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility (APPF) are home to a highly talented team of plant science researchers and specialists. This passionate, cross-disciplinary team is skilled in areas such as agriculture, plant physiology, biotechnology, genetics, horticulture, image and data analysis, mechatronic engineering, computer science, software engineering, mathematics and statistics. But who are they?

Today we take five minutes to get to know…

Prof. Justin Borevitz

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Tell us about where you work within the APPF.

I lead the Canberra ANU node of the APPF. Our node is part of the Australian National University (ANU) Plant Science Division which is a world leader in plant research. In addition to the APPF, ANU Plant Sciences contains the Centre of Excellence (CoE) in Plant Energy Biology (PEB), CoE Translational Photosynthesis (CoETP) and the ANU-CSIRO Centre for Genomics, Metabolomics and Bioinformatics.

The Canberra ANU node of the APPF offers:

  • On-site phenomics and plant growth services – NextGen growth and phenotyping facilities for Australian and international researchers including greenhouses and growth chambers with timelapse imaging.
  • Genomics and bioinformatics, study design and data analysis support – analysis of phenotypic and genomics data and the opportunity to collaborate with world-class researchers in genomics, photosynthesis and bioinformatics.
  • Development and streamlining of cross-scale approaches in monitoring for scaling from lab to field, chamber to crop and forest.
  • Research and development of open source hardware and software pipelines and visualisation tools for enabling lower cost high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) and environmental monitoring.
  • A collaborative, cross-disciplinary approach to tackling the grand challenges associated with HTP and environmental monitoring.

We provide the only quarantine approved growth cabinets in Canberra for research purposes. A range of growth cabinets are available, capable of high resolution phenotyping of up to 2,000 small plants continuously in custom and climate-simulated growth environments (LED-based). Quantitative phenotypic screening for Arabidopsis and similar sized small plants can be conducted.

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Virtual reality is the new frontier in scientific visualisation. We also offer the ability to visualise a forest in virtual reality with sensor data overlays for a visually integrated understanding of the landscape. The APPF is a leader in the development of systems for visualising phenomics and environmental sensing data and point clouds in virtual and augmented reality (VR an AR). EcoVR is a virtual reality tool for recreating any forest or field site as a virtual space, where timelapse sensor and phenomics data can be overlaid on a 3-dimensional model of the landscape. VR and AR represent immense opportunities for revolutionising phenomics and education and for industry collaborations to develop new visualisation platforms for precision agriculture. These tools can help farmers understand their farming landscape and can be used by the forestry industry to understand how the landscape, environment and genetics interact to impact forest growth.

What do you do there?

I’m Scientific Director, overseeing all research projects.

What is the best part of your job?

I get the most enjoyment out of planning new experiments.

Where do you see plant phenomics research in 5-10 years time?

Digital, machine learning, interconnected sensors and farm equipment, and providing food and environmental services (carbon, water, nutrient management).

“The moment I realised I loved plant science was…”

On my dad’s farm, growing new release strawberries when I was 15 years old.

If you could solve one plant science question, what would it be?

Climate ready, high yielding crops that increase soil fertility.

“When I’m not working I am…”

You’ll find me kayaking or gardening (integrative problem solving).

If you could have one super power, what would it be?

I’d like to be able to communicate knowledge into understanding for rational decision making.

“If I wasn’t a plant scientist I would be a…”

Definitely a ski bumb!

What is your idea of absolute happiness?

My family.

What is your most treasured possession?

Again, my family.

What scares you?

Cancer, but also reaching global limits.

If you could go backwards or forwards in time, where would you go?

I’d like to see my grandfather as a child in Poland on his family farm, and my daughter as a grandmother on her urban farm.

Contact Professor Justin Borevitz

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Solving the challenges of computer vision for plant phenotyping

Plants in spectral pheno climatron ANU

Plants in Spectral Pheno Climatron at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility’s Canberra ANU node

A ‘Computer Vision Problems in Plant Phenotyping‘ (CVPPP) workshop will be held in conjunction with ICCV 2017 this October in Venice, Italy.

Recommended by Dr Tim Brown from the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility‘s Canberra ANU node, the goal of this third CVPPP workshop is to continue to showcase the challenges raised by and extend state-of-the-art computer vision for plant phenotyping.

Workshop date:

  • 28 October

Target audience:

  • computer vision experts interested in novel application fields, well accessible to computer vision, but different in requirements, and
  • plant phenotyping scientists with rich expertise in image processing and computer vision interested in standardisation, as exact problem formulations in fact allow defining standards.

Find out more CVPPP 2017.

ICCV 2017 (International Conference on Computer Vision) is the premier international computer vision event comprising the main conference and several co-located workshops and tutorials. The conference will be held in Venice, Italy from 22-29 October, 2017. Find out more ICCV 2017.

To discover a full calendar of unmissable plant science events for 2017 and beyond, go to ‘Events‘ on the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility’s website, or our blog.

Be sure to subscribe to our blog for more plant science news and stay connected on Twitter @AusPlantPhenom.

Turbo charging crops to feed the billions: An interview with Prof Bob Furbank

The former Director of the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility‘s Canberra node at CSIRO, Professor Bob Furbank, has given an excellent interview on ABC Radio, discussing plant research and the global challenge to feed 9 billion people by mid-century.

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Now Director of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Translational Photosynthesis at
Australian National University in Canberra, Bob talks about his experiences in early photosynthesis research and his part in the C4 Rice Consortium.

The C4 Rice Consortium coordinates efforts from labs all over the world trying to isolate the genes responsible in C4 plants and apply them in C3 plants. If successful, yields in wheat and rice are expected to be 50% higher than present. An impressive result seen as vital for future food security. The consortium is led by Jane Langdale at the University of Oxford and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Listen to the interview or read the full transcript here.

From lab, to field, to forest!

The Australian Plant Phenomics Facility (APPF) knows no bounds, developing new technologies to ensure that the facility remains at the international forefront of plant science.

We can capture an image of a plant with ease, but how many megapixels does it take to image a forest? Dr Tim Brown would tell you it is 780 megapixels.

Tim and Prof Justin Borevitz from the APPF’s node at ANU have developed a “Gigavision” camera that takes hourly panoramic images made up of 200 x 18MP DSLR photos to create a 780 megapixel image of the forest.

What can a researcher do with this massive image you might ask? The resolution of the image allows researchers to track daily, seasonal and diurnal variation (plant behaviours) in the forest, tree and even leaf levels for thousands of trees in each forest.

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The first image of the Arboretum Forest, Canberra. Try it yourself here: https://traitcapture.org/gigapixels/by-id/58a3c186f7f5662afb647ef6. Go to the link and click on any tree within the image and zoom in to see the individual leaves on every tree.

Sensing and monitoring tools the APPF is developing at the research forest can be applied to other field ecosystems, such as commercial forests and national parks. Other tools include a pipeline to convert drone flight information into 3D models. APPF staff are available to help individual researchers or research groups set up these field tools at their own field sites.

The ANU research forest at the arboretum is available to national and international researchers for their own field experiments in a unique environment. All data is available for research use upon request.

For more information contact Tim Brown.